Among the OECD countries, Australia’s economy stands out. It hardly noticed the global crisis of 2008/9 and has recorded continuous annual growth since 1991. This success is very largely due to a robust mining sector, which collectively contributes almost 20% to GDP, and proximity to China where almost all of these mineral resources are consumed. Coal and iron ore exports to China have been the most important commodities in terms of both volume and value. Such remarkable, sustained economic performance has not been without some social stress.